Around 900, autonomous stem duchies (Franconia, Bavaria, Swabia, Saxony, and Lotharingia) reemerged in East Francia. A brief but significant struggle over investiture also occurred between Henry I of England and Pope Paschal II in the years 1103–1107, and the issue also played a minor role in the struggles between church and state in France. Regensburg, seat of the 'Eternal Diet' after 1663, came to be viewed as the unofficial capital of the Empire by several European powers with a stake in the Empire – France, England, the Netherlands, Russia, Sweden, Denmark – and they kept more or less permanent envoys there because it was the only place in the Empire where the delegates of all the major and mid-size German states congregated and could be reached for lobbying, etc. German princes and the aristocracy were happy to hear of the king’s deposition. During the Thirty Years' War, the Duke of Bavaria was given the right to vote as the eighth elector, and the Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (colloquially, Hanover) was granted a ninth electorate; additionally, the Napoleonic Wars resulted in several electorates being reallocated, but these new electors never voted before the Empire's dissolution. The latter would end up going to a more junior branch of the Habsburgs in the person of Charles's brother Ferdinand, while the senior branch continued to rule in Spain and in the Burgundian inheritance in the person of Charles's son, Philip II of Spain. Most rulers maintained one or a number of favourites Imperial palace sites, where they would advance development and spent most of their time: Charlemagne (Aachen from 794), Frederick II (Palermo 1220–1254), Wittelsbacher (Munich 1328–1347 and 1744–1745), Habsburger (Prague 1355–1437 and 1576–1611) and (Vienna 1438–1576, 1611–1740 and 1745–1806). Not all imperial territories were included within the imperial circles, even after 1512; the Lands of the Bohemian Crown were excluded, as were Switzerland, the imperial fiefs in northern Italy, the lands of the Imperial Knights, and certain other small territories like the Lordship of Jever. Returning in 756, Pippin bestowed on the papacy the territories belonging to the exarchate. Another new concept of the time was the systematic foundation of new cities by the Emperor and by the local dukes. Holy Roman Empire Audio Lecture . Fearing Frederick's concentration of power, the Pope finally excommunicated the Emperor. The 1232 Statutum in favorem principum mostly extended these privileges to secular territories. From the High Middle Ages onwards, the Holy Roman Empire was marked by an uneasy coexistence with the princes of the local territories who were struggling to take power away from it. Enforcing these declarations was a different matter, but the advantage gradually came to the side of the pope. The Gregorian reformers knew this would not be possible so long as the emperor maintained the ability to appoint the pope, so their first step was to forcibly gain the papacy from the control of the emperor. The Habsburgs were the natural choice as the richest of all the Empire's families, since the imperial Estates expected the emperor to discharge his responsibilities largely from his own resources. In the 12th century the Hanseatic League established itself as a commercial and defensive alliance of the merchant guilds of towns and cities in the empire and all over northern and central Europe. This state developed into modern Germany.  Kings traveled between residences (called Kaiserpfalz) to discharge affairs, though each king preferred certain places; in Otto's case, this was the city of Magdeburg. After Charlemagne died in 814, the imperial crown was disputed among the Carolingian rulers of Western Francia and Eastern Francia, with first the western king (Charles the Bald) and then the eastern (Charles the Fat) attaining the prize. Imperial rights had been referred to as regalia since the Investiture Controversy but were enumerated for the first time at Roncaglia. Other historians who work on estimates of the population of the early modern Empire suggest the population declined from 20 million to some 16–17 million by 1650. Since 1508 (emperor Maximilian I) Imperial elections took place in Frankfurt am Main, Augsburg, Rhens, Cologne or Regensburg. The Investiture Controversy continued for several decades as each succeeding pope tried to diminish imperial power by stirring up revolt in Germany. He lavishly spread French money in the hope of bribing the German electors. This culminated in a war with the sovereign Kingdom of Denmark from 1361 to 1370. Scholars generally concur, however, in relating an evolution of the institutions and principles constituting the empire, describing a gradual assumption of the imperial title and role. Furthermore, the Byzantine emperors of the Isaurian dynasty, of whom the first was Leo III (717–741), were estranged from the papacy by the Iconoclastic Controversy. The title was revived again in 962 when Otto I was crowned emperor, fashioning himself as the successor of Charlemagne and beginning a continuous existence of the empire for over eight centuries. The Holy Roman Empire, 12th century: The Hohenstaufen-ruled Holy Roman Empire and Kingdom of Sicily. The Holy Roman Empire was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806. German kings had been elected since the 9th century; at that point they were chosen by the leaders of the five most important tribes (the Salian Franks of Lorraine, Ripuarian Franks of Franconia, Saxons, Bavarians, and Swabians). Alter_Markt_(Magdeburg-Altstadt).Magdeburger_Reiter_edit.jpg. , In a decree following the 1512 Diet of Cologne, the name was changed to the "Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation" (German: Heiliges Römisches Reich Deutscher Nation, Latin: Sacrum Imperium Romanum Nationis Germanicæ), a form first used in a document in 1474. They used religious reasons to continue the rebellion started at the First Battle of Langensalza in 1075, and to seize royal holdings. Instead, Henry VII, of the House of Luxembourg, was elected with six votes at Frankfurt on 27 November 1308. Not only did the Christian church become a state church, including in its liturgy prayers for the empire and the emperor, but it also brought the Roman Empire into the framework of Christian eschatology (doctrine of last things), as the last of the world monarchies whose end would mark the inception of the kingdom of God. The first is the persistence, despite the fact that it was no longer a political reality west of Italy, of the idea of the universal and eternal Roman Empire. Through Christian iconography and through the liturgy the church’s view of the empire as a vehicle of God’s will, for the Christianization of the world, became prevalent. The founding territories retained their separate governance codes and laws. In 1190, Frederick participated in the Third Crusade and died in the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia.. Though he had made his son Henry king of Sicily before marching on Germany, he still reserved real political power for himself. The Investiture Controversy began as a power struggle between Pope Gregory VII (1072–1085) and Holy Roman Emperor Henry V (1056–1106). Mitteleuropa_zur_Zeit_der_Staufer.svg.png. The power of the emperor declined over time until the individual territories operated almost like. In 1282, Rudolf I thus lent Austria and Styria to his own sons. Though the Empire would have ties to the Vatican off and on during its existence, it never controlled the amount of land that Rome did in its heyday. When it was even rumoured that Charles intended to depose Adrian and set up a Frankish pope in his place, it would have been folly for the pope to think of formal severance from the existing empire. Regensburg was the place where envoys met as it was where representatives of the Diet could be reached. h�b```�~q!��1���DX^051�JI�*ʗ��w��1N~��/� ^CB The Holy Roman Empire on Heraldry.org . The shift in power away from the emperor is also revealed in the way the post-Hohenstaufen kings attempted to sustain their power. At this time, many local dukes saw it as a chance to oppose the hegemony of Emperor Charles V. The empire then became fatally divided along religious lines, with the north, the east, and many of the major cities – Strasbourg, Frankfurt, and Nuremberg – becoming Protestant while the southern and western regions largely remained Catholic.
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